MAK FORRIT Style Sheet

Maist scrievers haes thair ain thochts an preferences whan it comes til orthography. As eiditor I’m ettlin tae git the nummer o spellins doun til a couple o variants sae tae mak the blog mair consístent an easy tae read.

I’v uised a fair wheen soorces (leetit efter the table ablo), an peyed heed tae the wark o the writers here at MAK FORRIT. In partícular, I’v taen tent o Andy Eagle’s respectit modren orthography, an the aft-recommendit Essential Scots Dictionary — as weel, o coorse, as the muckle an braw líterar Scots canon that gangs back tae Barbour’s The Brus in the 14t century.

Nane o the wirds or spellins ablo hae been inventit bi me. My ettle isna tae haud doun dialect scrievin forby, but insteid win at a neutral Scots that can be read bi fowk frae aa airts an in thair ain by-leid.

The heidmaist ettlin o this style sheet is tae be mensfu an pragmatic — an tae no fash owre mony fowk forby! Threap in the comments kistie at the fit o the page gin ye dae think I’m wrang wi ony o the chyces. (An why no tak oor Scots spellin survey an aa?)

Scots (wirds and spellin variants uised on this blog) Spellins ye micht see itherwhaur Inglis Jottins
a a
ablo ablow below
aboot, hoose; oor; etc. about; hoose; our; etc. -oo- in certaint wirds for tae evite confuision owre pronunciation
aa; aaricht; aabody; etc. aw; awricht; awbody; etc. all; all right; everyone; etc.
abuin abune above
because acause because
ain (One’s) own
an an The indefinite airticle a micht occur afore baith vouels and consonants
an and
an aw; an aa forby also
ane [en, jɪn, in, wan], ae [eː, jeː]; ance [ens, jɪns, ins, wans] yin, yae; yinst wan, (N/A); wanst aince (once) one; once In a Staundart Scots, the tradeetional ane wad dae for aa pronunciations
anely ainly only
are (contractit ’re) are
as as
at at
aye ayeweys ay, ey always Burns uises ay (see DOST entry forby); Lorimer ey; MacDiarmidMcLellan an Fitt aye 
ay aye yes Lorimer, McLellan uise ay. Stevenson uises ay an aye. R. L. C. Lorimer uises aye in Macbeth. Ay gien as first heidwird at SND, an bi OSD
back back
be be
body person
but but
by bi (optional unstressed) by
can; coud can; could
canna(e); coudna(e); wadna(e); etc. cannot, can’t; couldn’t; wouldn’t; etc.
come come
contact; dialect; direct; fact; project; etc. contack; dialeck; direck; fack; projeck; etc. contact; dialect; direct; fact; project; etc. The -ck mak kythes a fair bit. A wheen ensaumples: respeck (DOST, SND), fack (DOSTSND); Scotland Makkin’s Scots Leid Policie; this SP document; NLS’s Wee Windaes projeck; SCOTS: contackdireck, fackprojeck. Burns uises, for ensaumple, eleckitnegleckit, respeckit, an theeckit. Lorimer uises acksarchiteckconvick, effeck, eleckexpecks, fackrespeck, rejeck, refleck, subjeck. R. L. C. Lorimer uises direcklie in his owresettin o Macbeth
contemporar; leebrar; líterar; ordinar; secretar; etc. contemporary; library; literary; ordinary; secretary; etc. SND: secretarordinar; SCOTS: ordinarsecretar. Leebrar kythes on NLS’s Scots Scriever Twitter account an Wee Windaes wabsteid. OSD gies contemporar, leebrar, leeterar, ordinar, secretar. There’s no owre mony kythins o contemporar an leeterar gin ye Google, but it’s certes consístent wi ither sib wirds. Linguist John M. Kirk mentions this mak here
dae; did; duin div (emphatic) dune do; did; done Barbour an Middle Scots makars uise dodid, done. Lorimer, MacDiarmid an McLellan aa uise daedid, dune. Stevenson uises dae (ance), didna. Burns uises do, dae (ance), did, done. Fitt uises dae, did, done. SND gies dae an did, wi dune as the past participle heidwird. SDS gies dae, did, duin. OSD gies dae/div, daed/did, duin/daen
cultur; featur; futur; líteratur; etc. culture; feature; future; literature; etc; DOST: futur; SND: leeteraturCultur kythes a fair bit gin ye Google. Featur is uised on Wee Windaes and SLA wabsteids. OSD gies cultur, featur, futur and leeteratur 
day day
doun; nou; toun; dout; etc. doon; noo; toon; doot; etc. down; now; town; doubt; etc. Can uise -ou- in thir wirds withoot leadin tae confuision owre hou tae pronoonce thaim
efter after
eneuch enough enough
even (contractit e’en) even
frae fae from
find finn find
first first
for [fɔr, for, fər, fɪr, fʌr] fir, fur, fer for For kythes maist aften in my sairches o modren beuks etc. The’re owre mony spellin variants sae juist gaun wi for. OSD gies for
gae, gan(g); gaed; gane (pp.); gaun, gaein go; went; gone; going
gate wey way
gie; gied, gae; gien, gied give; gave; given
gin gif if, whether
git get get
guid [gød, gyd, gjød, gɪd, ged, gwid, gid] good
hae [heː], hiv [hɪv, hʌv]; haed [heːd, hɛd, hɪd, hʌd]; haedna(e) [heːdnə, hɛdnə, hɪdnə, hʌdnə, -nɛ, -nɪ, -ne] hae; had; hadna(e) have; had; hadn’t
haes [heːz, hɪz, hʌz]; haesna(e) [-nə -nɛ, -nɪ, -ne] has; hasna(e) hes; hesna(e) has; hasn’t
hale haill whole
haund; grund; laund; aroond etc. haun; grun; laun; aroon etc. hand; ground; land; around; etc. The -d is pronoonced yet in mair conservative dialects
he he
her her
him him
haena hinna hivna haven’t
his his
why hou whit wey why
hunder hunner hundred
I [aː, ə, ɛ, aɪ] A Ah I (1st pers. pron.)
in i in
is; wis [waz, wɛz, wɪz, wʌz]; war; been [bin, bɪn, bein, bøn] wes (English was) is; was; were; been (pp.)
it it Contractit ’t in e.g. for’t, o’t etc.
ither other
its its
juist [dʒøst, dʒyst, dyst, dʒust, dust, dʒɪst, dɪst, dʒist] jist just
ken know
like like
leuk; beuk; teuk; etc. luik; buik; tuik; etc. look; book; took; etc. Burns uises leuk, beuk an teuk. OSD gies aa three
my; mysel ma; masel my; myself Ma an masel micht be uised insteid o my an mysel, or as a unstressed mak thareof. For expository scrievin, I’d juist mibbe gang wi my an mysel
maist most
mak make
me me
mind mynd remember
na [nə, neː] (adv., int.) naw no (e.g. negative repone tae a quaisten) Na gien bi OSDSND. DOST entry. Uised bi Lorimer, Burns and McLellan
nae (adj.) no, not any; not (adv.) (Northren dialects) Gien bi OSD, SND
name name
neist nixt next
new new
no not “From the contracted form of nocht” (OSD)
nor than than
o [o, e, ə] of
on [ɔn, on] oan on
ony; mony onie; monie any; many
oor; oorsel; oorsels wir; wirsel; wirsels our; ourself; ourselves Wir, wirsel an wirsels micht be uised insteid o oor, oorsel an oorsel; or as a unstressed mak thareof
or or
owre ower over
rin run
sae so
say say
see see
she she
shall; shoud sal(l); su(l)d shall; should Barbour, Dunbar, Douglas, Henryson an Stevenson aa uise sall an suld. McLellan uises shall an suld. Burns uises baith sal an shall, an sud an should; Lorimer uises sal an suid. SND an OSD baith gie sall an sud. OSD forby gies shall an shoud as mair modren spellins
some some
speak [spɪk, spɛk]; spak; spoken; speakin [spɪkɪn, spɛkɪn] spik speak; spoke; spoken; speaking
stairt; pairty stert; perty start; party
tae; intae til, intil ti; inti to; into
tak; teuk; takken, taen; takkin, taein take; took; taken; taking
than syne then
that, ’at thon yon at that Uissage o thon/yon is a bittie different tae that
the the
thay; thare; thair; thaim they; there; their; them their; they; there; them
thir these these
think think
this [ðɪs, ɪs, dɪs] is, ’is this
time time
twa [twɑː, twɔː, tweː, twaː] twae two
uise [jøːz, jyːz, øːz, jeːz, iːz]; uiss [jøs, jɪs, is, jus] yaise, yuise; yiss, yuiss use (verb); use (noun)
university, versity; policy universitie; policie varsity university; policy DOST: universitie, policie; RPS: universitie, policie. Universitie uised bi the Aiberdeen Universitie Scots Leid Quorum in the 1990s. Policie uised in the title o Scotland Makkin’s 2015 Scots Leid Policie. “Glesca Universitie” kythes in a 2007 Pairlamentar motion
up up
us hus (stressed form) us
want want
wark [wark] (n.) wirk [wɪrk, wʌrk] (v.) work
we we
weel well
wha [ʍɑː, ʍɔː, ʍeː, ʍɪə, faː, aː, ʍaː] fa who
whan [ʍan, ʍən, fan, fɪn, aːn] fan when
whilk which which
whit [ʍɪt, ʍʌt, ʍat, ʍɔt, fɪt, fʌt, fat, ət] fit what Burns, Lorimer, McLellan an Stevenson aa uise what. Fitt uises whit. (Barbour an the medieval Makars uise quhat.) Christine Robinson uises whit in Modren Scots Grammar. What kythes muckle mair in the DSL. OSD gies whit. Whit kythes ootthrou the SLC wabsteid. Leuks like whit is the mair modren spellin
wi with
will [wɪl, wʌl]; wad [wad, wɪd, wʌd] wull; wid, wud will; would
withoot ’ithoot wi’oot athoot without
ye you
year year
yer; yersel your; yoursel your; yourself Burns an Lorimer uise yoursel, McLellan an Fitt yer an yersel(l) (an baith whiles your). SND gies your, notin that yer (an ither variants) uised “chiefly in unstressed position”


Item Jottins
Dictionar o the Scots Leid (DSL)
A Doric Dictionary, pit thegither an eiditit by Douglas Kynoch (1996)
Essential Scots Dictionary, The (2004) Scottish Language Dictionaries (SLD)
Online Scots Dictionary (OSD): English to Scots; Scots to English Creatit bi Andy Eagle
Scots Dictionary for Schools app (iOS; Android) (2014)
Líterar warks an ither imprents
The Brus by John Barbour Written c. 1375. The first kent líterar wark in (Early) Scots. 2009 Canongate edeetion bi A. A. M. Duncan notes that “52% o the wirds in the poem is stryndit frae Auld Angles, 37% frae French (tho mony wad be auld borraeins).” A wheen wirds uised that will be kenspeckle tae modren een: amang; ane; ar (uised bi Lorimer; kythes the day in Lallans jurnal); biggit; brocht; dout; fecht; folk (modren spellin: fowk); fra (auld spellin o frae); gan; gane; hale; hame; hous (maistly spelt hoose the day); ilka; licht; maist; mak; mony; na; nane; nocht; ony; strenth; syne; tak; thocht; throu; till (modren spellin is for common til); twa 
The Complete Stories of Robert Louis Stevenson Twa stories are scrieved in Scots: Tod Lapraik an Thrawn Janet
The Canongate Burns: The Complete Poems and Songs of Robert Burns (Leet o ensaumple spellins tae follae)
Eejits, The by Roald Dahl, owreset by Matthew Fitt First imprentit in 2006. Ensaumple spellins: aff, afore, and, aroond, aw, awa, awbody, awricht, aye (Inglis “always”), aye (Inglis “yes”), because, biggit, canna, cannae, chynge, couldnae, didna, dinna, dinnae (in dialog), doon, efter, find, folk, forby, frae, furnitur, gaed, gane, gang, gaun, git, glaikit, guid, had, hadnae, hae, haill, haund, hert, hoose, I, ilka, intae, isna, jaikit, jist, jyle, ken, lauch, look, ma, mair, maist, masel, mony, nicht, nixt, noo, ony, ower, pairt, pit, staund, stert, strecht, tae, telt, thae, then, there, warld, weel, wha, when, whit, wi, wid, widnae, wis, wisna, wisnae, work, wrang, ye, yer, yin, yir, you (emphatic mak)
Linmill Stories by Robert McLellan Imprentit in 2010. (Leet o ensaumple spellins tae follae)
The Makars: The Poems of Henryson, Dunbar and Douglas The eeditor, J. A. Tasioulas, notes that “the spellin o the texts haes been modrenised a wee bit” but disna gang intae ony mair detail. Onygates, here’s a wheen o weel-kent wirds an phrases, in uiss the day, taen frae thir Middle Scots poems: ane; ay (modren spellin: aye, meanin “always” in Inglis); buik; coud; douchter; doun; dout; dreid; fra; guid; haill; hairt; hame; hous; ken; kirk; kist; langage; lat; leid; licht; luik; mair; mak; mirk; nocht; ony; pairt; richt; sall; sangs; soucht; strang; symmer (modren spellin: simmer); tak; tak na tent; than; thir; toucht; tuik; twa; warld
New Testament In Scots, The by William L. Lorimer First imprentit in 1983. (Leet o ensaumple spellins tae follae)
Lallans: The Journal o Scots Airts an Letters
Papers, grammars etc.
A Scots Grammar: Scots Grammar & Usage by David Purves
Introduction to Modern Scots by Andy Eagle
Modren Scots Grammar: Wirkin wi Wirds by Christine Robinson
Recommendations for Writers in Scots Scots Leid Associe, 1985
Scots Style Sheet Makar’s Club, 1947
Scots Spellin Comatee 1996-1998 Report recommends: Mensfu Scots Spellin
Oxford English Corpus o 100 maist common wirds, via EnglishClub
Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707 St Andras Universitie
Scottish Corpus Of Texts & Speech Glesca Universitie
Ither wabsteids
Bella Caledonia
Centre for the Scots Leid
Scots Threip by John M. Tait, includin airticles anent writin expository Scots
Wee Windaes: A Continuum o the Scots Leid Naitional Leebrar o Scotland
Wikipedia: Doric
Wikipedia: Modern Scots

One Reply to “MAK FORRIT Style Sheet”

  1. Evertype publishes Alice in nine dialects of Scots (Border, Caithness, Glaswegian, North-East (Doric), Shetland, South-Central, Synthetic, Ulster, and West-Central) as well as in a number of dialects of English (Appalachian, Cockney Rhyming Slang, Cornu-English, Middle English, Old English, Scouse):

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