By James McDonald
On the 27t October 2017, the Catalonie govrenment o Carlos Puidgemont declared wanthirldom as a republic. This is the fift time that the Catalonie govrenment haes declared the existence o a Catalan republic. In this airticle, we can leuk at the weys the muivement haes been born, an reborn, an developit ower the hunneryears.
The first declaration o Catalan wanthirldom wis in 1641 by Pau Claris, a priest that wis preses o the Disputacio (the Catalan legal an polítical institution). The wanthirldom wis keepit juist for a week durin the Fraunco-Spainish war, a war that happent atweesh 1635 an 1659. The impetus for this declaration wis the ‘Union o Airms’. The Union o Airms wis a plan that the Spainish govrenment pit intae place for tae obteen mair sodgers an tax fae Aragon (that Catalonie wis pairt o), an Portingal. The Catalonie govrenment refused, justifeein thair opposítion by sayin that thay were sendin ower mony sodgers, an that anerly the Catalan Coorts shoud can send Catalan sodgers ootwi Catalonie.
This first declaration, like the ithers that follaed, wis precedit by tension wi the Spainish govrenment: thare wis muivements agin the lairds an agin the urban oligarchies.1 Deed, it wis, as we’ll see, mainly the wirkers that wis at the forebreist o this muivement.
The catalyst for the revolt o 1640 that accompanied the declaration wis whan the Spainish viceroy at the time pit a nobleman, Tamarit, in the jyle for marrin the Spainish policies. In daein this, he thocht we wad can forder thair obtemperin. Hinderly, Catalonie wis in rebellion agin the Spainish kíng, wi Tamarit an ithers bein freed fae Barcelona jyle in a act reminiscent o the stormin o the Bastille. The Catalan naitional anthem descrives events fae this period: it’s cried ‘Els Segadors’, the ‘segadors’ bein the hairsters that wis gey an actíve in the rebellion at the time.
This declaration wis unner pertection fae Fraunce inítially. Efter the week, an for the remainder o the war, the Principality o Catalonie becam unner French control itsel. Northren Catalonie, nou kent as Roussillon, wis keepit by Fraunce efter the war.
The new Catalan republic wis opponed by the monarchist Majorcan corsairs, that attackit Catalan ships.2 The Spainish kíng then invadit Catalonie an regained control efter the war. But, in the lang rin, the eftercome o this declaration an aw the follaein insnorlment wi Fraunce wis, ither than the chynge in mairch, that the Catalans got whit thay were speirin efter in the first place: in 1652, the Spainish kíng Philip IV greed tae hain the principality’s institutions.3
The seicont declaration o a Catalan Republic wis declared by the province govrenment o Barcelona (Diputació de Barcelona) in 1873. The Balearic Islands wis includit as pairt o Catalonie at this pynt.
Baldomer Lostau i Prats, deputy o the Catalan Pairlament, wis electit as preses o the new republic.
This declaration wis different fae the ithers in that it wisnae for tae estaiblish anither independent kintra, but raither for tae estaiblish a republic ’ithin a federal Spainish republic. It wis ’ithin the wider contex o the estaiblishment o the first republic in Spainie. This first Spainish republic didnae last lang itsel, no e’en twa year atweesh Februar 1873 an December 1874.4
The third an fowert declarations precedit the Spainish cívil war. Baith the third an fowert declarations wis by a ERC (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya/Left Republicans o Catalonie) politícian cried Lluís Companys.
The third republic lastit three day in 1931. It wis declared efter the municipal elections o 12t o April5 in whilk the independentist pairties, ERC an Estat Català, won a majority o the seats. This wis follaed by negociations wi the new-foondit seicont Spainish Republic. It wis greed that Catalonie wad hae a certain meisur o sell-govrenment throu a Generalitat.6
Juist three year efter, the fowert Republic wis declared by the same politícian. It wis pairt o the October Events, a revolutionary muivement agin the richt-wing govrenment that haed juist taen pouer in Spainie. This wis compescet by the Spainish govrenment invasion. It wis declared due tae fears that the richt wing wad estaiblish a fascist govrenment in Spainie, like the govrenments awready in place in Italy an Germany. Thay war pruiven tae hae fears o a real danger in 1936 whan Franco stertit a coup d’état, an mair conclusively in 1939 whan the fascists won the war.
The war that follaed is generally cried the Spainish cívil war. But, fae a Catalan perspective, it coud be seen as a war o wanthirldom. In this war, the anarcho-syndicalist CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo) teuk control o lairge pairts o Catalonie an sae haed de facto control ower thae pairts, ’ithoot ony declaration.
The maist recent declaration, on the 27t o October 2017, wis efter seiven year o a accressin independentist muivement. The main swecht for the rise in independentism ’ithin the past seiven year wis the Statutes o Autonomy: in 2006, Catalonie votit (wi the acknowledgement o the Spainish govrenment) a chynge in the statutes o autonomy. The population, an maist Catalan polítical pairties, wis lairgely in favour o the chynges. Major pynts o this Status o Autonomy wis reversed in 2010 by the Spainish Supreme Coort. An this wis in maugre o the fact that ae memmer o the Supreme Coort wis deid in atween times.
Sae by no bein alloued tae control pairt o thair ain destiny in the wey thay thocht possible, that actually encouraged the Catalans tae hae ane mair wish tae tak control o thair ain destiny.
Aw the declarations discussed in this airticle propones a Catalan republic as a alternative tae a mair authoritarian state, aither a Spainish monarchy or a Spainish dictatorship.
Thare haes been a chynge in attitude o internaitional commonty fae ither declarations: in earlier declarations, thare wis mair support an less opposítion fae ither kintras.
This is an orra tendency acause republics is becomin mair an mair common outthrou the hunneryears. The first time a Catalan republic wis estaiblisht wis in the 17t hunneryear, whan thare wis a wee-er proportion o republics in Europe, an thaim that did exist war wee-er (thare wis Veinice an Frankfort for ensaumple). Reaction fae ither govrenments war non-existent in the 17t century; thir days it’s maist European kintras declarin thay’re opponin the referendum result. Thir days, wi the fift declaration, the republics is the maist common form o govrenment in Europe. Yet, thir days maist ither kintras is sayin that it’s a quaisten for Spainie, that Spainie haes its territorial integrity.
Mairches atweesh different kintras haes chynged mony times outthrou the hunneryears: maist independent kintras we see thir days disnae hae the same mairches as thay haed a hunner year syne, an the’re naur nane that haed the same mairches fower hunner year syne. Here is a chynge that is tae occur throu peacefu democratic means.
Nou, we can better unnerstaun hou we got here. We need tae leuk at the past for tae unnerstaun hou the muivement developit.
We can forby compare an contrast this wi the sítuation in Scotland:
Thare is símilarities atweesh the twa kintras: thay baith hae haed thair ain legal tradítions for hunneryears, thay war baith integrate intae a muckler union in the 18t hunneryear an thay are kintras that is pairt o a monarchy.
The reaction o the Spainish estaiblishment is gey an different fae the sítuation in Scotland: as we seen abuin, the reaction o the Supreme Coort wis tae strike doun the new Statute o Autonomy. Sae it’s the conter o ‘The Vow’: insteid o insistin thay’ll gie mair pouers, thay insist thay cannae git the pouers thay awready votit on. Obviously, we’re aye tae see mony new pouers in Scotland. Likewise, David Cameron, we can gie him that, wis willin tae offer the referendum, an the possibílity o wanthirldom, gif wanthirldom wad hae born the gree.
The richt for fowks tae determine thair ain destiny is a important pairt o democracy acause democracies gies the polítical richts tae the fowk, gies the richts for the fowk tae decide thairsels. Thae richts is incomplete gif thare isnae the richt tae chynge the existence itsel o the seistem.
A democracy that disnae allou the richt tae lea the govrenment thay’re unner awready is anerly hauf a democracy.
In the lang rin, we can see that Catalan independentism haes a lang history, fae the 17t hunneryear till the day. An, while the proposítion o a republic in Europe becomes mair an mair normal, the idea o a republic in Catalonie specífically is opponed mair an mair by the ither govrenments o Europe. This is acause thay are uisually agin the chyngin o the mairches o thair memmers, even gif this is whit the populace is wantin. Sae the opponin is a merk o conservative realpolitik, nae democratic eneuch.
An we can see that, in the first declaration in the 17t hunneryear, the Spainish govrenment thocht that imprisonment wad forder greement. The Spainish govrenment foond that the conter wis mair true: that the repressive actions o the state insteid forder disobedience an ootricht rebellion.
James McDonald is a Scots polyglot steyin in Réunion. He is keen on different leids, inspecially local leids, an thair forderin, whether it’s Scots, Gaelic, Réunion Creole or ither leids. He wirks in schuils, helpin bairns wi thair hamewirk an giein chess lessons. Ye can contact him on jmcd89 [AT] googlemail [DOT] com.
(Ye can translate ony wird atween Scots an English at the Online Scots Dictionar.)
|hairsters||harvesters, farm workers|
|in maugre o||in spite of|
|speirin efter||asking for|
- Le premier âge de l’Etat en Espagne: 1450-1700 (CNRS, 1989), coordinate by Christian Hermann
- Siclike citation 1
- Wayne te Brake, Shaping History: Ordinary People in European Politics, 1500-1700 (University of California Press, Jul 31, 1998)
- Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Academic Press, Oct 27, 2000
- Helena Buffery, Elisenda Marcer, Historical Dictionary of the Catalans (Scarecrow Press, Dec 18, 2010)
- Siclike citation 5